Chemical Neutralization

Chemical neutralization has become a reference in research laboratories, chemistry, biology. Where the reactions of acids and bases are studied, their importance for man. To find out how neutralization has contributed to the needs of man, continue reading this article.

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What is neutralization in chemistry?

It is considered to be the action or effect of neutralizing. Convert acids and bases into a neutral substance. A quantitative method, volumetric of importance where the reaction between an acid and a base. When the end point of it is set. This is done even pH seven and what happens is that the ions are combined [HO3-] with the [OH-] of the solve. To form water and a salt within the solution. It is called the point where the acid–base concentration are equal.

The word salt means that a compound is involved ionic from the base or the acid. The neutralization reactions are exothermic. They consist in the fact that an acid and a base both neutralize their property.  It can be understood as a removal of the base or acid.

When is a neutralization carried out?

During the neutralization ions, react with each other to produce salt and water. Without the ions continue to dissociate in aqueous solution. The salt is not formed until which is removed from it. Through the process of evaporation. The pH of the solution after close to neutralization depends on the ions present. Happens when by the addition of the standard substance, in an amount that is chemically equivalent. The final point is that it is observed, in relation to the amount of the titrant volume to reach neutralization.

The equivalence point is achieved by using a pH indicator. When a color change is observed in the titration. The role of the indicator is essential to appreciate this change, which can last between 20 min – 30 min.  The mixture of an acid with a base reacts in different degrees of dissociation. It depends on the concentration and volume of the acid–base. It means that if an acid is strong it is combined with a weak base, the latter will be totally neutralized and a quantity of acid will remain in solution.

In the combination of a strong base with a weak acid, the dissolution will be basic because it remains in more quantity.  When a weak acid is mixed with a base weak, the acidity will depend on the acidity constant and the concentration of both interveners.

Types of neutralization

There are two ways to achieve the neutralization. Through direct titration and the reverse titration, in the first where the titrant acts directly with the analyte. In the second se an excess of the known reagent is added to the solution, then the excess. The latter allows to easily identify the end point that the premium. They are also classified into potentiometric valuations, a measure of the difference of the potential between a suitable electrode versus the electrode of calomelano.

Conductimetric, the conductivity of the solution is measured depending on the added volume. It serves for weak acid - bases. Photometric, spectrometers are used, it is checked how the absorbance varies of the sample as a function of volume. Amperimetric, it is used in reactions redox. Columbimetric, are thermometric, colorimetric, magnification detection of temperature in the assessment. PH-meter, measures the variation of ions [H+], directly from the electrical potential.

Importance of Chemical Neutralization

Chemical neutralization is of great importance in the industry because it is an efficient and effective method to produce salts of high purity. It is used in the determination of a variety of organic, inorganic, biological compounds. Of innumerable importance its applications in quantitative analysis in the determination of acids. Hydroxides, nitrogen among others

The appropriate indicator

Neutralization is based on the reactions that they experience two solutions when a color change occurs by using of an appropriate indicator. For example the colorless phnolphthalein in acidic medium and red in basic medium. The methyl orange red color in acidic medium and yellow in basic medium. They are indicators to be used during the assessment. That experience strong color change. It can be a weak acid or base with different colors, it is complexed with the analyzed ion presenting characteristics different in dissociation.

Forming colored precipitate to the first excess of titulante. Oxidizes - reduces, to the first excess of titrant, with different colouring.

What is neutralization in chemistry
What is neutralization in chemistry

The valuation curve

It is essential is a graph of concentration related to the incorporation of a volume of titrant added reagent. To the analyte the titration density. It reflects the strength of acid and base and can be classified as alkalimetry, determination of known concentration. HCL, H2SO4, HNO3, HCLO4 are always used. As acidimetry, determination of an acid, using a strong base such as NaOH.

Chemical neutralization formula

To calculate, if the ratio is 1:1, one mole of acid and one mole of base, to give as a product one mole of salt and one mole of water. The following.

V of the acid X C of the acid = V of the base X C of the base.

Example What is the concentration in mol/L is a sulfuric acid solution, if 50 ml of solution needs 37.52 of hydroxide whose concentration is 0.15 mol/L, for its total neutralization.

H2SO4 + 2 NaOH——-
Na2SO4 + 2H20

The ratio is 1:2 therefore

V of the acid X C of the acid/1 mol = V of the base X C of the
base/ 2 mol, then

V of acid = V of base
X C base x 1 mol/ C acid x 2 mol

V of the acid = 1 mol x 0 0372 L x 0.15 mol/ L / 2 MOL X 0.05

Acid V = 0.0558 mol/L of H2SO4

EXAMPLE 2 42 ml of NaOH of concentration 0.15 is needed mol/L, to neutralize 50 ml of HCL. What is the molar concentration of the acid solution?

For the equation NaOH + HCL -- Na CL + H2O

Molar ratio 1
:  1

Where: V acid x C acid = V base x C base

V acid x C acid/1 mol = V base x C base/1mol

C acid = 1 mol x 0.042 L x 0.15 mol/L / 1 mol x 0.050 L

C acid = 0 126 mol/ L

I hope you have found in the chemical neutralization, it produces neutral substances enough information for your usefulness, click every time you need to remember some concept exposed here.

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