Paper chromatography is the oldest technique of separation of analytes from the sample; it is applied particularly in the analysis of lipid samples and chemical compounds. In paper chromatography, a small dot of sample applied to the piece of paper using capillary, the edge of the paper is deep in a solvent and it runs the solvent up through the paper by the capillary action. Separation of sample compounds can depend on the structure, molecular size, weight, and polarity of the compound.The advantages of paper chromatography are as follows:
- It requires fever quantitative material.
- Separation of compounds in a short time.
- Analysis requires a low amount of sample.
- Compare to other chromatography methods paper chromatography is a cheap technique.
- Organic as well as inorganic compounds can be identified by paper chromatography method.
- The setup of paper chromatography occupies less space than the other chromatographic method.
- Easy to handle and setup.
- The less sample quantity required for the analysis.
- Cost-effective method.
The disadvantages of paper chromatography are as follows:
- Volatile substances cannot be separated using paper chromatography techniques.
- Paper chromatography cannot be compatible with large amounts of sample.
- Quantitative analysis is not useful in paper chromatography.
- Paper chromatography cannot be separated complex mixture.
- As compared to the HPLC, TLC or HPTLC, paper chromatography has less accuracy.
- Data cannot be saved for long periods