The Periodic Properties, One More Contribution
Periodic properties have been one of the most important contributions of the periodic table. It provides a lot of information about the relationship of the structures of the atom with the variations experienced by the properties of the elements represented in the periodic table, among the properties the periodicity of the atomic radius, the atomic volume, the ionization potential, the electronic affinity, electronegativity, the metallic, non-metallic character and the oxidation state are manifested.
What are periodic properties?
They are periodic functions of their atomic numbers. In the variations of these properties depend on the electronic configurations. Of the outer layer that is occupied by electrons and their distance from the nucleus. The variation depends on the position it occupies in the periodic table.
What are the periodic properties?
The atomic radius, according to the studies of Rutheford the atom is constituted by a central nucleus. The one who concentrates the mass and the positive and rotating charge around him electrons are located. It is the stretch located from the outermost electrons with reference to the nucleus. They are located in the periodic table from the left going to the right, moving vertically. In alkali, alkaline earth and transition metals it begins to decrease as they accept electrons at their external energy levels.
The ionic radius
The ionic radius, is defined from the structure of the ionic compounds. The sum of the radii, is equal to the distance between the core. When two ions with the same element and charge, belong to the same group, the radius is greater the higher the atomic number. When two ions monatomic particles have the same number of electrons, the radius is less than the corresponding to the ion whose nuclear charge is greater. Ionization energy, it is the measure of energy that must be added to tear an atom from its outer shell.
That it is in a lower energy state, (ground state) to achieve separating a retained electron with lower intensity. The factors that determine the ionization potential are, the atomic size, the effective nuclear charge, the screen effect, the type of electron removed in the ionization process. Electron affinity is the amount of energy it takes for an atom to give up energy to release an electron. Electronegativity, has to do with the polarity between atoms, that is, it is the attraction of electron cloud between the elements, through the bonds.
It measures the force with which the electrons of an atom are attracted and its ability to link with other elements.
How does each one vary of periodic properties?
The atomic radius
For the atomic radius, it happens that when the nuclear charge increases and electrons are added to the same main energy levels. The increased nuclear charge attracts the electron cloud closer to the nucleus. When descending through a group it can be observed that the atomic radii increase. When more electrons are added to the higher energy levels. The ionic radius, the radius of a cation is less than the atomic radius, the difference being smaller the smaller the positive charge of the ion. The radius of the anions is greater than the atomic radius.
They are always related to the corresponding neutral atoms. The ionization energy varies according to the period it increases from the left side to the right, as its effective “z” increases. It is the gases that have the greatest value. The atomic number increases when the ionization energy decreases from the top down. If the energy is high, the electronic configuration is stable, just as it happens in noble gases. The ionization energy is fluid for the periodic properties and the formation of the bonds in the chemical elements.
The electronic affinity
The electron affinity, in the periods increases from the left to the right by increasing the atomic number. The values of the affinity in the groups are stable, these decrease from top to bottom,
as the size of the element is raised. Electronegativity, the values show regular variations is both in the groups and in the periods. It rises as the period progresses. Decreases as advances in the group and consequently increases the size of each element, the they have little electronegativity as the size of the element.
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