Factors Affecting Separation in Column Chromatography

Column chromatography is most commonly used, basic and oldest mode of separation of solids and liquids in the form of a complex mixture and separates the compounds on the basis of their polarity. Separation in the column chromatography is significant for efficiency.
Here is mentioned the factors which are affecting the column efficiency.

The dimension of the column:
The ideal length: diameter ratio is 30: 1 or 20: 1, but to improve in efficiency 100: 1 can be additionally suitable.

The particle size of the adsorbent:
The activity of adsorbent reliable on the adsorbent surface area, to increase surface area, Particle size can be reduced and therefore the activity of the adsorbent is increased.

Nature of the solvent:
The solvent flow rate is having an effect of its viscosity. Therefore, the solution has less viscosity are enhanced efficient than a more viscous solvent.

The temperature of the column:
At high temperatures the elution speed of the solvent is increased, usually for all samples separated, at room temperature, if samples are difficult, then the higher temperature can be used.

High pressure on the column and low pressure under the column, it enhances the efficiency of separation.

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