Factors affecting Rf value in paper chromatography

Paper chromatography is a chromatographic method of separation in which the flow of solvent separates the substance by capillary action on the specially designed paper (cellulose filter paper) that acts as a stationary phase. The quantity of each analyte of the sample mixture can be determined using retention factors (Rf). Retention factors are helpful in the comparison between the chromatograms.Here are some factors that affect the Rf value of paper chromatography.

  • The solvent system
  • Composition of the mobile phase
  • The working temperature of the system
  • The quality of the paper used
  • The distance through which the solvent runs
  • The quality and nature of solvents used
  • The polarity of components
  • The pH of the solvent or mobile phase
  • The thickness of the stationary phase
  • Saturation or equilibrium of the mobile phase
  • The concentration of the sample or spot
  • Techniques applied for sample

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