Glossary Of HPLC-LC Separation Terms – Z

The listing should be helpful to those just starting in HPLC but it also can serve as a refresher for long-time users in the field.


Zero dead volume: Any fitting or component that has no volume that is unswept by the eluent.

Zirconia: Porous zirconium oxide. Used as a chromatographic sorbent, usually coated or bonded with polymeric organic phase.

Zone: See band.

Zone velocity (u z ): The velocity at which the solute zone travels; u z = u M/(1 + k) = L/t R, where u M is the mobile-phase velocity, k is the retention factor, L is the column length, and t R is the retention time.

Zwitterions: Compounds that carry both positive and negative charges in solution.


(1) R.E. Majors and P.W. Carr, LCGC 19(2) 124–162 (2001).

(2) "Nomenclature for Chromatography" in Pure and Appl. Chem. 65 (4), 819–872 (1993).

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