What is a buffer solution and how does it work

A buffer solution is a solution that refuses to change the pH after adding a small amount of acid or base. A buffer is a mixture of aqueous acid-base solution adjusted to an exact pH value.

Its resistance to pH changes makes the buffer solution more useful for chemical manufacturing and is necessary for many biochemical processes. The ideal buffer for a specific pH has a pKa equivalent to the desired pH, because in this solution the buffer contains an equal amount of base and acid and the capacity of the buffer is in the middle of the range. Buffer solutions are needed to maintain the correct pH for enzymes in various organisms. Many enzymes only work under very specific conditions, if the pH is too far out of range the enzyme can slow down or stop working and reject itself, stopping its catalytic activity forever.

Industrially, the buffer solution is used in fermentation processes and serves to establish the proper conditions for the colors used in fabric color. They are also used in chemical analysis, chromatographic analysis, dissolution and calibration of pH meter and some other instruments.

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